Author Archives: flanker017

Racing for everyone: descriptor describes TOCTOU in Apple's core

Racing for everyone: descriptor describes TOCTOU in Apple’s core

This blog post is about a new type of vulnerabilities in IOKit I discovered and submitted to Apple in 2016. I did a brief scan using a IDA script on MacOS and found at least four bugs with 3 CVEs assigned (CVE-2016-7620/4/5), see https://support.apple.com/kb/HT207423. I was told afterwards that there’re even more issues of this type on iOS’/OSX’s IOKit drivers and fortunately Apple fixed them also.

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Some examples of kernel infoleak bugs on Android

Recently as KASLR is slowly adopted into Android and because of the requirements of exploitation stability of previous bugs, kernel infoleak bugs are becoming more and more important. Here I want to explain two infoleak bugs on Android, one found by me and is fixed now, and other one is a known and fixed bug but very useful as it exists on all android platforms.

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一个矩形pwn掉整个内核系列之一 – zone的舞蹈

一个矩形pwn掉整个内核系列之一 – zone的舞蹈

一个矩形pwn掉整个内核?这听起来很马德里不思议,然而这真实地发生在了今年3月份温哥华的Pwn2Own赛场。这一系列文章会向大家分享我们这次沙箱逃逸用到的Blitzard CVE-2016-1815的发现和利用经历。我们通过三步走最终完成了这个利用,本文将先问大家介绍第二和第三步 – kalloc.48的舞蹈kalloc.8192 重剑无锋,在最后一篇文章中,我们会回到本源,介绍这个漏洞的起因。

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The Journey of a complete OSX privilege escalation with a single vulnerability – Part 1

The Journey of a complete OSX privilege escalation with a single vulnerability – Part 1

In previous blog posts Liang talked about the userspace privilege escalation vulnerability we found in WindowServer. Now in following articles I will talk about the Blitzard kernel bug we used in this year’s pwn2own to escape the Safari renderer sandbox, existing in the blit operation of graphics pipeline. From a exploiter’s prospective we took advantage of an vector out-of-bound access which under carefully prepared memory situations will lead to write-anywhere-but-value-restricted to achieve both infoleak and RIP control. In this article we will introduce the exploitation methods we played with mainly in kalloc.48 and kalloc.4096.

First we will first introduce the very function which the overflow occurs, what we can control and how these affect our following exploitation.

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Integer overflow due to compile behavior in OSX Kernel IOUSBHIDDevice

Interesting Integer overflow in enum comparison IOHIDDevice::handleReportWithTime

By flanker from KeenLab.

There exists a signed integer comparison overflow in IOHIDDevice::_getReport and then handleReportWithTime, which can lead to oob access/execute in handleReportWithTime. A normal process can leverage this vulnerability to archive potential code execution in kernel and escalate privilege.

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Surface Pro 入手体验

(Update again: 新macbook pro已经入手,所以Surface也该吃灰了orz) (Update: 我们pwn2own奖品已经拿到了,zdi发了一台surface pro4高配版,所以下面就不用看了233)

为什么要买Surface

先介绍下我现在的工作环境: 主力办公机是一台公司去年配的台式,32G内存+i7 4770K+128G SSD和2T SATA,配了27+24的两个显示器,安装Ubuntu Linux 14.04和VMware里的Win10. 主要的高性能需求工作(编译源代码,批量处理等)都在这个上面进行。然后有一些服务器来搞fuzz。此外还有一个12年底个人买的15寸RMBP,已经服役3年之久。

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ANDROIDID-24123723 (CVE-2015-6620) POC and writeup

github link at https://github.com/flankerhqd/CVE-2015-6620-POC

CVE-2015-6620-POC-1

POC for one bug in CVE-2015-6620-1 (ANDROIDID-24123723), AMessage unmarshal arbitrary write. The two bugs are merged to one CVE, and here is POC for one of them.

Explaination

533 sp<AMessage> AMessage::FromParcel(const Parcel &parcel) {
534    int32_t what = parcel.readInt32();
535    sp<AMessage> msg = new AMessage(what);
536
537    msg->mNumItems = static_cast<size_t>(parcel.readInt32()); //mNumItems can be set by attacker
538    for (size_t i = 0; i < msg->mNumItems; ++i) {
539        Item *item = &msg->mItems[i];
540
541        const char *name = parcel.readCString();
542        item->setName(name, strlen(name));
543        item->mType = static_cast<Type>(parcel.readInt32());
544
545        switch (item->mType) {
547            {
548                item->u.int32Value = parcel.readInt32();//overwrite out-of-bound
549                break;
550            }

65 void AMessage::clear() {
66    for (size_t i = 0; i < mNumItems; ++i) {
67        Item *item = &mItems[i];
68        delete[] item->mName; //maybe freeing the wrong pointer if i ran out-of-bound
69        item->mName = NULL;
70        freeItemValue(item);
71    }
72    mNumItems = 0;
73}

The msg->mItems is an array of fixed size kMaxNumItems=64, however when AMessage is unmarshalled, the loop counter can be set far beyond this limit, thus lead to memory overwrite or arbitrary freeing, then memory corruption.

Then we need to find a binder interface that will unmarshal the AMessage and can be called by unprivileged application. Through searching I found that the IStreamListener->issueCommand is a callback that accepts transaction from normal client, then processed at the mediaserver side. And it will construct AMessage from input parcel.

To get an IStreamListener, one way is create a BnStreamSource and provide to MediaPlayer->setDataSource, then when playing MediaPlayer will call the setListener method of your BnStreamSource Implementation, providing the client an IStreamListener and communicate control params via AMessage. So, we provide our fake AMessage here. Boom!

Test method:

Build the POC with name stream, then ran with adb shell stream ts-file-name. I use a TS media file to trigger the binder callback for simplicity, but there should be better options.

Sample crash:

F/libc    (17405): Fatal signal 11 (SIGSEGV), code 1, fault addr 0xdfe85000 in tid 17511 (streaming)
I/DEBUG   (  355): *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
I/DEBUG   (  355): Build fingerprint: 'google/shamu/shamu:5.1.1/LMY48I/2074855:user/release-keys'
I/DEBUG   (  355): Revision: '33696'
I/DEBUG   (  355): ABI: 'arm'
W/NativeCrashListener(  839): Couldn't find ProcessRecord for pid 17405
I/DEBUG   (  355): pid: 17405, tid: 17511, name: streaming  >>> /system/bin/mediaserver <<<
E/DEBUG   (  355): AM write failure (32 / Broken pipe)
I/DEBUG   (  355): signal 11 (SIGSEGV), code 1 (SEGV_MAPERR), fault addr 0xdfe85000
I/DEBUG   (  355):     r0 29685000  r1 d6d5d4d9  r2 b6802e74  r3 fff29685
I/DEBUG   (  355):     r4 b6800000  r5 000003df  r6 b6802e8c  r7 c81fff19
I/DEBUG   (  355):     r8 b6be24b8  r9 000003e2  sl b380bbac  fp b6e65fd8
I/DEBUG   (  355):     ip 0000000c  sp b380bac0  lr b6e31b3d  pc b6e31af6  cpsr 200f0030
I/DEBUG   (  355):
I/DEBUG   (  355): backtrace:
I/DEBUG   (  355):     #00 pc 00041af6  /system/lib/libc.so (je_arena_dalloc_bin+41)
I/DEBUG   (  355):     #01 pc 00041b39  /system/lib/libc.so (je_arena_dalloc_small+28)
I/DEBUG   (  355):     #02 pc 000498b3  /system/lib/libc.so (ifree+462)
I/DEBUG   (  355):     #03 pc 00012caf  /system/lib/libc.so (free+10)
I/DEBUG   (  355):     #04 pc 0000c943  /system/lib/libstagefright_foundation.so (android::AMessage::clear()+24)
I/DEBUG   (  355):     #05 pc 0000c973  /system/lib/libstagefright_foundation.so (android::AMessage::~AMessage()+18)
I/DEBUG   (  355):     #06 pc 0000c98d  /system/lib/libstagefright_foundation.so (android::AMessage::~AMessage()+4)
I/DEBUG   (  355):     #07 pc 0000ec55  /system/lib/libutils.so (android::RefBase::decStrong(void const*) const+40)
I/DEBUG   (  355):     #08 pc 0003a679  /system/lib/libmediaplayerservice.so (android::sp<android::SharedLibrary>::~sp()+10)
I/DEBUG   (  355):     #09 pc 0005bbeb  /system/lib/libmediaplayerservice.so
I/DEBUG   (  355):     #10 pc 0005be71  /system/lib/libmediaplayerservice.so (android::NuPlayer::NuPlayerStreamListener::read(void*, unsigned int, android::sp<android::AMessage>*)+216)
I/DEBUG   (  355):     #11 pc 000580fb  /system/lib/libmediaplayerservice.so (android::NuPlayer::StreamingSource::onReadBuffer()+50)
I/DEBUG   (  355):     #12 pc 00058271  /system/lib/libmediaplayerservice.so (android::NuPlayer::StreamingSource::onMessageReceived(android::sp<android::AMessage> const&)+20)
I/DEBUG   (  355):     #13 pc 0000c4c3  /system/lib/libstagefright_foundation.so (android::ALooperRoster::deliverMessage(android::sp<android::AMessage> const&)+166)
I/DEBUG   (  355):     #14 pc 0000be45  /system/lib/libstagefright_foundation.so (android::ALooper::loop()+220)
I/DEBUG   (  355):     #15 pc 000104d5  /system/lib/libutils.so (android::Thread::_threadLoop(void*)+112)
I/DEBUG   (  355):     #16 pc 00010045  /system/lib/libutils.so
I/DEBUG   (  355):     #17 pc 00016baf  /system/lib/libc.so (__pthread_start(void*)+30)
I/DEBUG   (  355):     #18 pc 00014af3  /system/lib/libc.so (__start_thread+6)
I/DEBUG   (  355):
I/DEBUG   (  355): Tombstone written to: /data/tombstones/tombstone_04

Fuzzing binder for fun and profit

这是11.20日我在京东沙龙演讲的ppt, 讲述了binder的基本结构和我们发现的几个漏洞的利用方式. 由于讲的0day内容google还没有公开补丁,故这个公开下载的ppt马赛克了这部分内容. ppt链接在 http://tool.flanker017.me/papers/fuzzing-binder-for-fun-for-profit-sharing.pdf